I keep a multi-tool, two spare tubes, and a quick-stick tire lever in my saddle bag. I don't bother with tube patch kits typically. I also usually try to keep a few strips of duct tape or candy bar wrappers, as they're a pretty effective barrier between the tire and tube on the rare circumstance that you get a puncture or slice through the tire (enough to get you home). Otherwise, your new tube will just try to push through the tire puncture/gash and blow your tube again.
I have one of the small hand pumps that mounts by my lower bottle cage. Supposedly, it'll go to ~110/120 psi, but I think physically, the best I ever get is ~90 psi before I can't get any more in. For me it's an emergency pump, and if I have to swap a tube, I just ride easy until I hit home or a shop to top off the pressure. Otherwise, look into frame pumps that mount under your top tube. There are several that will hit road bike pressures, but depending on your frame geometry, they may or may not fit.