Boyle and Smith created the first successful Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) in 1969 while working at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.
Boyle and Smith did not set out to reinvent photography; they were trying to develop better electronic memory. To that end, they developed a silicon plate with millions of light-sensitive photocells. The CCD accumulated light-induced charges over its surface, and transported them to be read out at the edge of the light-sensitive area. The process makes use of an effect theorized by Albert Einstein, who won the 1921 Nobel Prize for the idea.
And since someone brought this thread back to the top, I'll add in that the IEEE is claiming that someone else did more work than these two did with the CCD. I'm not gonna bother looking up the name, though, because nobody typically seems to care about when I post stuff like this.
im currently in the process of developing the worlds first 4D camera which captures time as a physical dimension in correlation with space as outlined in Einstein's theory of relativity. look for it on shelves next month next to the holgas and dianas