My brother once lost the lower rad hose on a Chrysler 440. He didn't notice the temperature spike and continued to drive.
He noticed he had to give it more gas but thought it must be a long hill (prairies can be deceiving) but finally decided to pull over when he realized he had his foot on the floor.
The engine seized solid and he got a tow back.
We tried starting it the next day. It ran.
We changed the oil and put another 40,000 miles on it before the car got sold.
That is what can happen. Not always though so change the oil and try.
Hope that long winded story reassures you.